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jtotheizzoe:

magictransistor:

Relative Magnitudes; ‘Geographicus Burritt’ (Huntington Chart of the Solar System), 1856.

I love me a good vintage infographic.
jtotheizzoe:

magictransistor:

Relative Magnitudes; ‘Geographicus Burritt’ (Huntington Chart of the Solar System), 1856.

I love me a good vintage infographic.
jtotheizzoe:

magictransistor:

Relative Magnitudes; ‘Geographicus Burritt’ (Huntington Chart of the Solar System), 1856.

I love me a good vintage infographic.

jtotheizzoe:

magictransistor:

Relative Magnitudes; ‘Geographicus Burritt’ (Huntington Chart of the Solar System), 1856.

I love me a good vintage infographic.

guardian:

Mars was once awash with water. There are two possibilities. Either the water seeped down into the interior, or it was driven into space

As Nasa’s Maven mission arrives at the red planet, we may finally be close to working out where it all went. Read more »

Illustration: AP

mothernaturenetwork:

Take a bite out of poaching and learn about rhinosSept. 22 marks World Rhino Day, a day first organized in 2010 to celebrate all five extant species of rhinoceros: Black, white, Sumatran, Indian and Javan.
See more photos.
mothernaturenetwork:

Take a bite out of poaching and learn about rhinosSept. 22 marks World Rhino Day, a day first organized in 2010 to celebrate all five extant species of rhinoceros: Black, white, Sumatran, Indian and Javan.
See more photos.
mothernaturenetwork:

Take a bite out of poaching and learn about rhinosSept. 22 marks World Rhino Day, a day first organized in 2010 to celebrate all five extant species of rhinoceros: Black, white, Sumatran, Indian and Javan.
See more photos.

mothernaturenetwork:

Take a bite out of poaching and learn about rhinos
Sept. 22 marks World Rhino Day, a day first organized in 2010 to celebrate all five extant species of rhinoceros: Black, white, Sumatran, Indian and Javan.

See more photos.

aimfitnesscoaching:

fit-free-fun:

thehealthywarrior:

weightwatcherqueen:

Terrific Tip: Flip the bell peppers over to check their gender. The ones with four bumps are female and those with three bumps are male. The female peppers are full of seeds, but sweeter and better for eating raw and the males are better for cooking. Isn’t that cool? 


That is awesome!

Wtf. Mind. Blown.

we-are-star-stuff:

What Are Conjoined Twins?
Twins whose bodies are connected are called conjoined twins.
Births of conjoined twins, whose skin and internal organs are fused together, are rare. Conjoined twins occur once every 200,000 live births, and their survival is anything but assured.
For some reason, female siblings seem to have a better shot at survival than their male counterparts. Although more male twins conjoin in the womb than female twins, females are three times as likely as males to be born alive. Approximately 70 percent of all conjoined twins are girls.
Conjoined twins begin as a single fertilized egg. Usually a single fertilized egg develops into a single baby. Sometimes a single egg divides in half during the first one to two weeks after it’s fertilized. This creates a set of identical twins.
The exact cause of conjoined twinning is not known. There are two theories. One is that the egg divides late and does not divide completely. The other is that the egg divides completely but then fuses (joins) back together.
The connection between the twins’ bodies may be fairly simple. They may share only a small amount of tissue, and both children may have all the organs and other structures they need. For example, the twins may be joined at the belly with a “bridge” that connects their livers.
Usually the connection is more complex, and sometimes it is very complex. The children may share:
Vital organs, like one heart
Many structures, like several parts of their digestive, genital and urinary systems
A large segment of their body, like all of their lower body
Part of the brain and skull
Types of conjoined twins
Doctors group conjoined twins based on where they are joined.
Joined at the chest, called thoracopagus. This is the most common type. About 40% of conjoined twins are in this group. These twins are face to face. In about 75% of cases, they share one heart. Twins joined at the chest may also share their liver, biliary tract (which carries bile from the liver to the small intestine) and upper digestive tract.
Joined from the breastbone to the waist, called omphalopagus or xiphopagus. These twins are face to face. They may share their liver, biliary tract and upper digestive tract. About 35% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the sacrum and buttock area, called pygopagus. These twins are back to back. They may share part of their lower digestive tract and parts of their skeleton, nervous system and genitals. About 20% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined in the pelvic area, possibly up to the breastbone, called ischiopagus. These twins may be oriented to each other in different ways. In general, they partly face each other. They may share their liver and biliary tract, part of their upper and all of their lower digestive tract, their genital and urinary systems and part of their skeleton. About 6% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the head, called craniopagus. These twins may share their skull, brain and other parts of their nervous system. About 2% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Outlook for Conjoined Twins
Most sets of conjoined twins do not survive because their organs cannot support them. About 40% of conjoined twins are not alive when they are delivered (stillborn). About 35% die within a day after they are born. The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5 percent and 25%.
Survival
Even so, more conjoined twins survive now than in the past. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and anesthesia have helped improve chances for survival. We also have tools to detect their condition before birth. This means their families and doctors can plan their early care before they are born.
Usually this includes scheduling delivery by cesarean section (C-section) a month before their due date. This is because a vaginal birth is too hard for mother and babies.
Among the conjoined twins who survive more than a day after birth, some continue to live for days, weeks, months or years while conjoined. Some live into adulthood still physically connected to each other.
Some have surgery to be separated, usually in the first year of life. The success of this surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share. In some cases, both twins survive after surgery. In some cases, only one survives, or neither does.
Although success rates have improved over the years, surgical separation is still rare. Since 1950, at least one twin has survived separation about 75 percent of the time.
[Sources: x x]
we-are-star-stuff:

What Are Conjoined Twins?
Twins whose bodies are connected are called conjoined twins.
Births of conjoined twins, whose skin and internal organs are fused together, are rare. Conjoined twins occur once every 200,000 live births, and their survival is anything but assured.
For some reason, female siblings seem to have a better shot at survival than their male counterparts. Although more male twins conjoin in the womb than female twins, females are three times as likely as males to be born alive. Approximately 70 percent of all conjoined twins are girls.
Conjoined twins begin as a single fertilized egg. Usually a single fertilized egg develops into a single baby. Sometimes a single egg divides in half during the first one to two weeks after it’s fertilized. This creates a set of identical twins.
The exact cause of conjoined twinning is not known. There are two theories. One is that the egg divides late and does not divide completely. The other is that the egg divides completely but then fuses (joins) back together.
The connection between the twins’ bodies may be fairly simple. They may share only a small amount of tissue, and both children may have all the organs and other structures they need. For example, the twins may be joined at the belly with a “bridge” that connects their livers.
Usually the connection is more complex, and sometimes it is very complex. The children may share:
Vital organs, like one heart
Many structures, like several parts of their digestive, genital and urinary systems
A large segment of their body, like all of their lower body
Part of the brain and skull
Types of conjoined twins
Doctors group conjoined twins based on where they are joined.
Joined at the chest, called thoracopagus. This is the most common type. About 40% of conjoined twins are in this group. These twins are face to face. In about 75% of cases, they share one heart. Twins joined at the chest may also share their liver, biliary tract (which carries bile from the liver to the small intestine) and upper digestive tract.
Joined from the breastbone to the waist, called omphalopagus or xiphopagus. These twins are face to face. They may share their liver, biliary tract and upper digestive tract. About 35% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the sacrum and buttock area, called pygopagus. These twins are back to back. They may share part of their lower digestive tract and parts of their skeleton, nervous system and genitals. About 20% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined in the pelvic area, possibly up to the breastbone, called ischiopagus. These twins may be oriented to each other in different ways. In general, they partly face each other. They may share their liver and biliary tract, part of their upper and all of their lower digestive tract, their genital and urinary systems and part of their skeleton. About 6% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the head, called craniopagus. These twins may share their skull, brain and other parts of their nervous system. About 2% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Outlook for Conjoined Twins
Most sets of conjoined twins do not survive because their organs cannot support them. About 40% of conjoined twins are not alive when they are delivered (stillborn). About 35% die within a day after they are born. The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5 percent and 25%.
Survival
Even so, more conjoined twins survive now than in the past. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and anesthesia have helped improve chances for survival. We also have tools to detect their condition before birth. This means their families and doctors can plan their early care before they are born.
Usually this includes scheduling delivery by cesarean section (C-section) a month before their due date. This is because a vaginal birth is too hard for mother and babies.
Among the conjoined twins who survive more than a day after birth, some continue to live for days, weeks, months or years while conjoined. Some live into adulthood still physically connected to each other.
Some have surgery to be separated, usually in the first year of life. The success of this surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share. In some cases, both twins survive after surgery. In some cases, only one survives, or neither does.
Although success rates have improved over the years, surgical separation is still rare. Since 1950, at least one twin has survived separation about 75 percent of the time.
[Sources: x x]
we-are-star-stuff:

What Are Conjoined Twins?
Twins whose bodies are connected are called conjoined twins.
Births of conjoined twins, whose skin and internal organs are fused together, are rare. Conjoined twins occur once every 200,000 live births, and their survival is anything but assured.
For some reason, female siblings seem to have a better shot at survival than their male counterparts. Although more male twins conjoin in the womb than female twins, females are three times as likely as males to be born alive. Approximately 70 percent of all conjoined twins are girls.
Conjoined twins begin as a single fertilized egg. Usually a single fertilized egg develops into a single baby. Sometimes a single egg divides in half during the first one to two weeks after it’s fertilized. This creates a set of identical twins.
The exact cause of conjoined twinning is not known. There are two theories. One is that the egg divides late and does not divide completely. The other is that the egg divides completely but then fuses (joins) back together.
The connection between the twins’ bodies may be fairly simple. They may share only a small amount of tissue, and both children may have all the organs and other structures they need. For example, the twins may be joined at the belly with a “bridge” that connects their livers.
Usually the connection is more complex, and sometimes it is very complex. The children may share:
Vital organs, like one heart
Many structures, like several parts of their digestive, genital and urinary systems
A large segment of their body, like all of their lower body
Part of the brain and skull
Types of conjoined twins
Doctors group conjoined twins based on where they are joined.
Joined at the chest, called thoracopagus. This is the most common type. About 40% of conjoined twins are in this group. These twins are face to face. In about 75% of cases, they share one heart. Twins joined at the chest may also share their liver, biliary tract (which carries bile from the liver to the small intestine) and upper digestive tract.
Joined from the breastbone to the waist, called omphalopagus or xiphopagus. These twins are face to face. They may share their liver, biliary tract and upper digestive tract. About 35% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the sacrum and buttock area, called pygopagus. These twins are back to back. They may share part of their lower digestive tract and parts of their skeleton, nervous system and genitals. About 20% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined in the pelvic area, possibly up to the breastbone, called ischiopagus. These twins may be oriented to each other in different ways. In general, they partly face each other. They may share their liver and biliary tract, part of their upper and all of their lower digestive tract, their genital and urinary systems and part of their skeleton. About 6% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the head, called craniopagus. These twins may share their skull, brain and other parts of their nervous system. About 2% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Outlook for Conjoined Twins
Most sets of conjoined twins do not survive because their organs cannot support them. About 40% of conjoined twins are not alive when they are delivered (stillborn). About 35% die within a day after they are born. The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5 percent and 25%.
Survival
Even so, more conjoined twins survive now than in the past. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and anesthesia have helped improve chances for survival. We also have tools to detect their condition before birth. This means their families and doctors can plan their early care before they are born.
Usually this includes scheduling delivery by cesarean section (C-section) a month before their due date. This is because a vaginal birth is too hard for mother and babies.
Among the conjoined twins who survive more than a day after birth, some continue to live for days, weeks, months or years while conjoined. Some live into adulthood still physically connected to each other.
Some have surgery to be separated, usually in the first year of life. The success of this surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share. In some cases, both twins survive after surgery. In some cases, only one survives, or neither does.
Although success rates have improved over the years, surgical separation is still rare. Since 1950, at least one twin has survived separation about 75 percent of the time.
[Sources: x x]
we-are-star-stuff:

What Are Conjoined Twins?
Twins whose bodies are connected are called conjoined twins.
Births of conjoined twins, whose skin and internal organs are fused together, are rare. Conjoined twins occur once every 200,000 live births, and their survival is anything but assured.
For some reason, female siblings seem to have a better shot at survival than their male counterparts. Although more male twins conjoin in the womb than female twins, females are three times as likely as males to be born alive. Approximately 70 percent of all conjoined twins are girls.
Conjoined twins begin as a single fertilized egg. Usually a single fertilized egg develops into a single baby. Sometimes a single egg divides in half during the first one to two weeks after it’s fertilized. This creates a set of identical twins.
The exact cause of conjoined twinning is not known. There are two theories. One is that the egg divides late and does not divide completely. The other is that the egg divides completely but then fuses (joins) back together.
The connection between the twins’ bodies may be fairly simple. They may share only a small amount of tissue, and both children may have all the organs and other structures they need. For example, the twins may be joined at the belly with a “bridge” that connects their livers.
Usually the connection is more complex, and sometimes it is very complex. The children may share:
Vital organs, like one heart
Many structures, like several parts of their digestive, genital and urinary systems
A large segment of their body, like all of their lower body
Part of the brain and skull
Types of conjoined twins
Doctors group conjoined twins based on where they are joined.
Joined at the chest, called thoracopagus. This is the most common type. About 40% of conjoined twins are in this group. These twins are face to face. In about 75% of cases, they share one heart. Twins joined at the chest may also share their liver, biliary tract (which carries bile from the liver to the small intestine) and upper digestive tract.
Joined from the breastbone to the waist, called omphalopagus or xiphopagus. These twins are face to face. They may share their liver, biliary tract and upper digestive tract. About 35% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the sacrum and buttock area, called pygopagus. These twins are back to back. They may share part of their lower digestive tract and parts of their skeleton, nervous system and genitals. About 20% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined in the pelvic area, possibly up to the breastbone, called ischiopagus. These twins may be oriented to each other in different ways. In general, they partly face each other. They may share their liver and biliary tract, part of their upper and all of their lower digestive tract, their genital and urinary systems and part of their skeleton. About 6% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Joined at the head, called craniopagus. These twins may share their skull, brain and other parts of their nervous system. About 2% of conjoined twins are in this group.
Outlook for Conjoined Twins
Most sets of conjoined twins do not survive because their organs cannot support them. About 40% of conjoined twins are not alive when they are delivered (stillborn). About 35% die within a day after they are born. The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5 percent and 25%.
Survival
Even so, more conjoined twins survive now than in the past. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and anesthesia have helped improve chances for survival. We also have tools to detect their condition before birth. This means their families and doctors can plan their early care before they are born.
Usually this includes scheduling delivery by cesarean section (C-section) a month before their due date. This is because a vaginal birth is too hard for mother and babies.
Among the conjoined twins who survive more than a day after birth, some continue to live for days, weeks, months or years while conjoined. Some live into adulthood still physically connected to each other.
Some have surgery to be separated, usually in the first year of life. The success of this surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share. In some cases, both twins survive after surgery. In some cases, only one survives, or neither does.
Although success rates have improved over the years, surgical separation is still rare. Since 1950, at least one twin has survived separation about 75 percent of the time.
[Sources: x x]

we-are-star-stuff:

What Are Conjoined Twins?

Twins whose bodies are connected are called conjoined twins.

Births of conjoined twins, whose skin and internal organs are fused together, are rare. Conjoined twins occur once every 200,000 live births, and their survival is anything but assured.

For some reason, female siblings seem to have a better shot at survival than their male counterparts. Although more male twins conjoin in the womb than female twins, females are three times as likely as males to be born alive. Approximately 70 percent of all conjoined twins are girls.

Conjoined twins begin as a single fertilized egg. Usually a single fertilized egg develops into a single baby. Sometimes a single egg divides in half during the first one to two weeks after it’s fertilized. This creates a set of identical twins.

The exact cause of conjoined twinning is not known. There are two theories. One is that the egg divides late and does not divide completely. The other is that the egg divides completely but then fuses (joins) back together.

The connection between the twins’ bodies may be fairly simple. They may share only a small amount of tissue, and both children may have all the organs and other structures they need. For example, the twins may be joined at the belly with a “bridge” that connects their livers.

Usually the connection is more complex, and sometimes it is very complex. The children may share:

  • Vital organs, like one heart
  • Many structures, like several parts of their digestive, genital and urinary systems
  • A large segment of their body, like all of their lower body
  • Part of the brain and skull

Types of conjoined twins

Doctors group conjoined twins based on where they are joined.

  • Joined at the chest, called thoracopagus. This is the most common type. About 40% of conjoined twins are in this group. These twins are face to face. In about 75% of cases, they share one heart. Twins joined at the chest may also share their liver, biliary tract (which carries bile from the liver to the small intestine) and upper digestive tract.
  • Joined from the breastbone to the waist, called omphalopagus or xiphopagus. These twins are face to face. They may share their liver, biliary tract and upper digestive tract. About 35% of conjoined twins are in this group.
  • Joined at the sacrum and buttock area, called pygopagus. These twins are back to back. They may share part of their lower digestive tract and parts of their skeleton, nervous system and genitals. About 20% of conjoined twins are in this group.
  • Joined in the pelvic area, possibly up to the breastbone, called ischiopagus. These twins may be oriented to each other in different ways. In general, they partly face each other. They may share their liver and biliary tract, part of their upper and all of their lower digestive tract, their genital and urinary systems and part of their skeleton. About 6% of conjoined twins are in this group.
  • Joined at the head, called craniopagus. These twins may share their skull, brain and other parts of their nervous system. About 2% of conjoined twins are in this group.

Outlook for Conjoined Twins

Most sets of conjoined twins do not survive because their organs cannot support them. About 40% of conjoined twins are not alive when they are delivered (stillborn). About 35% die within a day after they are born. The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5 percent and 25%.

Survival

Even so, more conjoined twins survive now than in the past. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and anesthesia have helped improve chances for survival. We also have tools to detect their condition before birth. This means their families and doctors can plan their early care before they are born.

Usually this includes scheduling delivery by cesarean section (C-section) a month before their due date. This is because a vaginal birth is too hard for mother and babies.

Among the conjoined twins who survive more than a day after birth, some continue to live for days, weeks, months or years while conjoined. Some live into adulthood still physically connected to each other.

Some have surgery to be separated, usually in the first year of life. The success of this surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share. In some cases, both twins survive after surgery. In some cases, only one survives, or neither does.

Although success rates have improved over the years, surgical separation is still rare. Since 1950, at least one twin has survived separation about 75 percent of the time.

[Sources: x x]

laurajmoss:

The UN Climate Summit kicks off tomorrow.
Here’s how you can get involved.

laurajmoss:

The UN Climate Summit kicks off tomorrow.

Here’s how you can get involved.

allthecanadianpolitics:

Why Winnipeg? How Canada’s national lab became an Ebola research powerhouse

When Dr. Frank Plummer talks about the first experimental Ebola drug used in an outbreak, he pronounces it “Zed Map.”

"I do it consciously," says Plummer, who retired this year after serving for nearly 14 years as the head of Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg.

The rest of the world says the first letter of the drug ZMapp the way Americans do, calling the concoction of three Ebola antibodies “Zee Map.” But the cocktail was created in Winnipeg and Plummer thinks the name of a made-in-Canada drug ought to pronounced the Canadian way.

Winnipeg. Half a world away from the countries in Africa where Ebola, and its viral cousin, Marburg, occasionally slip out of their animal reservoir to start infecting and killing people, as Ebola is now doing in West Africa.

They are two of the worst viruses known to humankind, as evidenced by the current outbreak, which has infected at least 5,335 people and killed at least 2,622. To date, fortunately, there has never been a case of either viral hemorrhagic fever infections within Canadian borders.

So why then is Canada’s national lab an Ebola research powerhouse? Why is a facility on the edge of the Prairies, near North America’s longitudinal centre, the site from whence some of the most promising Ebola research emanates?

What research? Well, there’s ZMapp, the most promising of the current experimental treatments. There’s also an Ebola vaccine that may be useful both to prevent infection and stop it in its tracks, if given shortly after exposure. And a mobile diagnostic lab that has changed the way outbreak testing is done.

These are enormous contributions to the scientific efforts to prevent or contain Ebola. And the fact that they come from Winnipeg seems to come down to a few good men.

Continue Reading.

afro-dominicano:

Mapping the Light of the Cosmos

Figuring out what the structure of the universe is surprisingly hard. Most of the matter that makes up the cosmos is totally dark, and much of what is left is in tiny, dim galaxies that are virtually impossible to detect.
Image: The first image above shows one possible scenario for the distribution of light in the cosmos. Credit: Andrew Pontzen/Fabio Governato
This image shows a computer simulation of one possible scenario for the large-scale distribution of light sources in the universe. The details of how light (and hence galaxies and quasars) is distributed through the cosmos is still not a settled question – in particular, the relative contributions of (faint but numerous) galaxies and (bright but rare) quasars is unknown.
(New research from UCL cosmologists published last week shows how we should be able to find out soon.)
However, astronomers know that on the largest scales, the universe is structured as a vast web made up of filaments and clusters of galaxies, gas and dark matter separated by huge, dark voids. Observational astronomy is making strides forward in mapping out these structures in gas and light, but the smallest galaxies – less than a pixel across in the image above – might never be seen directly because they are simply too faint.
A Hubble image of a nearby faint dwarf galaxy (bottom image) shows the challenge involved in observing these objects even when they are in our galaxy’s vicinity.
These computer models are one way of trying to extrapolate from what we know to what is really there. New research from UCL now shows how we can also use future observations of gas to find out more about this elusive population of tiny galaxies.
This simulated image shows the distribution of light in an area of space over 50 million light-years across. The simulation was created by Andrew Pontzen of UCL and Fabio Governato of the University of Washington.
afro-dominicano:

Mapping the Light of the Cosmos

Figuring out what the structure of the universe is surprisingly hard. Most of the matter that makes up the cosmos is totally dark, and much of what is left is in tiny, dim galaxies that are virtually impossible to detect.
Image: The first image above shows one possible scenario for the distribution of light in the cosmos. Credit: Andrew Pontzen/Fabio Governato
This image shows a computer simulation of one possible scenario for the large-scale distribution of light sources in the universe. The details of how light (and hence galaxies and quasars) is distributed through the cosmos is still not a settled question – in particular, the relative contributions of (faint but numerous) galaxies and (bright but rare) quasars is unknown.
(New research from UCL cosmologists published last week shows how we should be able to find out soon.)
However, astronomers know that on the largest scales, the universe is structured as a vast web made up of filaments and clusters of galaxies, gas and dark matter separated by huge, dark voids. Observational astronomy is making strides forward in mapping out these structures in gas and light, but the smallest galaxies – less than a pixel across in the image above – might never be seen directly because they are simply too faint.
A Hubble image of a nearby faint dwarf galaxy (bottom image) shows the challenge involved in observing these objects even when they are in our galaxy’s vicinity.
These computer models are one way of trying to extrapolate from what we know to what is really there. New research from UCL now shows how we can also use future observations of gas to find out more about this elusive population of tiny galaxies.
This simulated image shows the distribution of light in an area of space over 50 million light-years across. The simulation was created by Andrew Pontzen of UCL and Fabio Governato of the University of Washington.

afro-dominicano:

Mapping the Light of the Cosmos

Figuring out what the structure of the universe is surprisingly hard. Most of the matter that makes up the cosmos is totally dark, and much of what is left is in tiny, dim galaxies that are virtually impossible to detect.

Image: The first image above shows one possible scenario for the distribution of light in the cosmos. Credit: Andrew Pontzen/Fabio Governato

This image shows a computer simulation of one possible scenario for the large-scale distribution of light sources in the universe. The details of how light (and hence galaxies and quasars) is distributed through the cosmos is still not a settled question – in particular, the relative contributions of (faint but numerous) galaxies and (bright but rare) quasars is unknown.

(New research from UCL cosmologists published last week shows how we should be able to find out soon.)

However, astronomers know that on the largest scales, the universe is structured as a vast web made up of filaments and clusters of galaxies, gas and dark matter separated by huge, dark voids. Observational astronomy is making strides forward in mapping out these structures in gas and light, but the smallest galaxies – less than a pixel across in the image above – might never be seen directly because they are simply too faint.

A Hubble image of a nearby faint dwarf galaxy (bottom image) shows the challenge involved in observing these objects even when they are in our galaxy’s vicinity.

These computer models are one way of trying to extrapolate from what we know to what is really there. New research from UCL now shows how we can also use future observations of gas to find out more about this elusive population of tiny galaxies.

This simulated image shows the distribution of light in an area of space over 50 million light-years across. The simulation was created by Andrew Pontzen of UCL and Fabio Governato of the University of Washington.

"It’s the warmth of mathematics, warming your heart."
Calculus teacher in response to a student commenting that the room was warm (via mathprofessorquotes)

spaceexp:

SpaceX CRS-4 Dragon capsule and Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle at Space Launch Complex 40; 20 September 2014

mindblowingscience:

Character will take you far in life.

edwardspoonhands:

all-the-weird-things:

exploratorium:

mashable:

itscolossal:

A Multi-Camera 360° Panoramic Timelapse of the Stars by Vincent Brady [VIDEO]

WHOA!

Too mind bending not to reblog!

i feel like this is exactly what Vincent Van Gogh saw and now i am crying 

GOTTA FIGURE OUT HOW TO WATCH THIS IN THE OCULUS!!!

edwardspoonhands:

all-the-weird-things:

exploratorium:

mashable:

itscolossal:

A Multi-Camera 360° Panoramic Timelapse of the Stars by Vincent Brady [VIDEO]

WHOA!

Too mind bending not to reblog!

i feel like this is exactly what Vincent Van Gogh saw and now i am crying 

GOTTA FIGURE OUT HOW TO WATCH THIS IN THE OCULUS!!!

astrotastic:

samspratt:

"Neil deGrasse Tyson" - Illustration by samspratt
Finally got around to wrapping up this portrait of everyone’s favorite astrophysicist. With his huge impact on new generations of aspiring scientists, I knew I wanted the background to be children’s space drawings. With my 6 year-old niece’s planetary masterpieces as inspiration, I did my best imitation with my left hand. (prints available here)

i just teared up
astrotastic:

samspratt:

"Neil deGrasse Tyson" - Illustration by samspratt
Finally got around to wrapping up this portrait of everyone’s favorite astrophysicist. With his huge impact on new generations of aspiring scientists, I knew I wanted the background to be children’s space drawings. With my 6 year-old niece’s planetary masterpieces as inspiration, I did my best imitation with my left hand. (prints available here)

i just teared up

astrotastic:

samspratt:

"Neil deGrasse Tyson" - Illustration by samspratt

Finally got around to wrapping up this portrait of everyone’s favorite astrophysicist. With his huge impact on new generations of aspiring scientists, I knew I wanted the background to be children’s space drawings. With my 6 year-old niece’s planetary masterpieces as inspiration, I did my best imitation with my left hand. (prints available here)

i just teared up

rrrick:

astrodidact:

Three years ago, researchers fired whisky to the International Space Station as part of an experiment to see how the conditions in space change flavours. Next month, the whisky will return to Earth.

Scotland’s contribution to space research. Good job.